De-icing dispute between airlines, FAA added to storm woes
The Associated Press
NEW YORK -- As driving sleet beat down on John F. Kennedy International Airport during a late-winter storm March 16, a cluster of pilots waited late into the night to see if ground crews could make their ice-covered jets safe enough to fly.
For many, it was a losing battle. In five hours, one terminal exhausted its entire 30,000-gallon supply of the chemical sprayed on airplane wings to protect them from ice and snow.
"That's more than we normally use in half a winter," said Edward Paquette, a manager at the company that operates the terminal.
Hundreds of passengers remained aboard the grounded jets for six, nine and even 14 hours as the de-icing operations ground to a halt. Furious travelers castigated the airlines for not letting them off planes. On the East Coast alone, airlines canceled 3,600 flights.
Unbeknownst to travelers, the fiasco may have been complicated by disagreement over whether the airlines should fly at all in such weather.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the airlines have been at odds for two years about new rules for taking off in storms that produce light ice pellets, a term for the sleet that occurs when snow melts and then refreezes as it falls.
The dispute began in October 2005, when the FAA temporarily barred flights in these ice storms after a Canadian study indicated anti-icing fluids might not work in such conditions. The worry, as with most wintry weather, is that the ice pellets will stick to a plane's wings and throw off its aerodynamics with potentially catastrophic consequences.
Air carriers protested the new rules and the FAA in August began allowing flights again, but only if pilots can take off within 25 minutes of de-icing.
Planes that don't beat that deadline have to be de-iced again, creating headaches for airlines because departing flights routinely exceed the 25-minute threshold at major airports. That means some planes that are de-iced have to leave the takeoff queue and go back to be de-iced again.
Airlines argue that the FAA overreacted to an inconclusive study.
The Air Transport Association, a group representing most U.S. cargo and passenger airlines, calls the new rules "unnecessary and overly restrictive."
"The FAA's de-icing policy has had an enormous impact on flight operations during recent winter weather, contributing to extensive delays and cancellations," the group said last week in a written response to an inquiry. "The FAA has provided us with no corroborating data to support these changes."
JetBlue Chief Executive David Neeleman also complained about the regulation after a Valentine's Day ice storm disrupted JetBlue operations at JFK.
During that Feb. 14 storm, JetBlue held some planes on the tarmac for up to 10 ½ hours while waiting for a break in the weather that never came.
Neeleman said more planes might have been able to get in the air if FAA rules didn't deter takeoffs when the forecast calls for ice pellets.
With proper de-icing, "it's not a dangerous condition," he said.
Besides antagonizing travelers, flying during pellet storms is expensive. Completely de-icing a Boeing 747 can cost more than $30,000 in chemicals, not counting the extra fuel burned while waiting. Repeated de-icing can deplete airports' chemical stocks, as happened at JFK during the March 16 storm.
FAA spokeswoman Alison Duquette acknowledged that the decision to limit operations in light ice pellets was prompted by an abundance of caution.
Additional research is under way in partnership with Transport Canada, the FAA's equivalent north of the border.
It is possible, Duquette said, that regulators will modify their policies again if studies yield better information about how long anti-icing fluids guard against this particular type of ice buildup.
"We know that the industry has concerns," she said.
That would include airline claims that the 25-minute window can lead to a ban on flights at some congested airports.
At overcrowded JFK, the average taxi-out time for planes taking off last year was 33 minutes, according to the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. The average flight taxied for 30 minutes at Newark Liberty International, 27 minutes at LaGuardia and 20 minutes each at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International and O'Hare International in Chicago.
The United Parcel Service said its research indicated anti-icing fluids protect planes from ice-pellet buildup for much longer than the 25 minutes suggested by the FAA.
"Obviously, everyone wants to be conservative," UPS spokesman Mark Giuffre said. "But, there are some forms of ice pellets and precipitation where we think there are operative conditions ... We still feel like there's more opportunity [to fly]."
Material from The Wall Street Journal is included in this report.
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